May the new year shine as bright as ever,
Happy New Year 2018!
May the new year shine as bright as ever,
Happy New Year 2018!
Tihar is the festival of lights. The five day long festival is a joyous annual festival that brings happiness, prosperity and good wishes into the lives of people.
Being the festival of lights, butter lamps known as diyos are lit and the entire country illuminates to celebrate with immense joy and ecstasy.
Here’s a picture of the ladies at Dharma during Tihar in October 2017.
Shrawan is the fourth month in the Nepali calendar. If you happen to be anywhere in or near the vicinity of Nepal, you will come across women clad in red, green or yellow bangles. Most of them will also have henna tattoos decorated on their hands.
This month is considered highly auspicious and each Monday of Shrawan, known as Shrawan Somvar, is dedicated to Lord Shiva, the god of destruction. Believers, especially women, observe fast every Monday during this month and visit the holy Pashupatinath Temple. They light butter lamps and incense to please Lord Shiva. According to Hindu mythology, Monday fasts in this month ensure good prospective husbands for unmarried girls and good health for husbands of married women. They believe Goddess Parvati observed fast for the entire month of Shrawan before Lord Shiva was impressed and married her.
Several days prior to this month, the market bustles as women passionately shop for new clothes and bangles. Items for prayers such as flowers, colours, butter lamps, incense sticks etc collect a high demand. Most women gather and pre- celebrate this month by applying henna on the hands, singing, dancing and making merry.
Nag Panchami is celebrated on the fifth day of the moonlit-fortnight in the month of Shrawan. As this festival falls during the rainy season, it is believed that serpents come out of their holes which get flooded with the monsoon rain to look for dry shelter.
Meanwhile, people stick pictures and images of snakes on the entrance to their houses across the country to mark the Nag Panchami. They also visit temples and offer milk to the snake god.
Teej is another festival that occurs during the months of Shravan and Bhadra, corresponding to the monsoon season of July-August. Married women celebrate this festival by fasting and worshipping idols of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati seeking marital bliss. Legend has it that it is the day when Lord Shiva was impressed with Parvati’s dedication and so accepted her.
Teej celebrations last for three pious days. Traditional dances and songs form an important feature of Teej celebrations. Red color is considered auspicious for women observing Teej fast and so most of them dress up in red or bridal clothes.
Boudhanath, also known as Boudha, is one of the most popular tourist sites in Kathmandu. In contrast to the colorful surroundings, the stupa itself is stark white in color. It has different names in different languages. The Newar communities of Nepal call it Khasti, Tamangs call it Jyarung Khasyor and in Nepali it is Boudhanath.
This magnificent Stupa is one of the largest measuring almost 100m in diameter and stands 40m in height, and one of the most significant Buddhist monuments in the world. This great Stupa was enlisted as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979 making it an admirable place of interest for people all over the world. Today it is the key center of Tibetan Buddhism and the holiest of all Buddhist shrines in Nepal. Surrounded by shops, cafes, and handicraft businesses, it has emerged as an important trade hub and a major tourist destination. It is believed that those who reside around this great Stupa are blessed and will never have to suffer from hunger, famine and unfavorable conditions.
There are many stories and legends relating to the origin and history of Boudhanath Stupa. It is believed that this great Stupa was built during the Kashyapa Buddha’s end period and the beginning period of Shakayamuni Buddha.
The earliest historical references of Boudha Stupa are found in the chronicles of the Newar society. Some believe the name is derived from Kasyapa, the Manusi Buddha of the Dwapara-yuga, whose relics are said to be enshrined within it.
According to Newari etymology it is derived from the Newari word for “dew”, by the chronicles that mentioned when the Stupa was in the process of construction, a drought struck and the workmen would lay out a white cotton cloth at night to collect the morning dew, which was then wrung out to facilitate the day’s construction.
According to another story (as per Gopal Raj Chronicles) the Licchavi King Dharmadeva installed “stone spouts” but the water did not come. So, the king consulted his astrologers and was told to sacrifice the most virtuous man in the kingdom for water. After disappointing results, the King decided that it was only himself and his son who qualified as victims and so decided to sacrifice himself. He instructed his son, Prince Manadeva to decapitate his shrouded form with one stroke. The prince obeyed his father’s command but was horrified to see his father’s head fly from the corpse. It landed in the temple of Vajra Yogini in Sankhu and he was told by the goddess that the only way the prince could undo his sins was to let a cock fly and build a Stupa for his father wherever the cock landed. The cock perched at Boudha, and King Manadeva built the magnificent Stupa there.
Part of the stupa was damaged when the 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck the country on April 25th, 2015. Realizing the religious, cultural, archeological and touristic importance of the Boudhanath Stupa, the locals of the area joint hands and decided to go ahead with reconstruction of the revered stupa. Support poured out from home and abroad in the form of cash, construction materials, gold and physical labour. The love, respect and hard work of the people paid off and after eighteen months of the devastating earthquake that shook the country, Nepalese celebrated the restoration of the stupa. In a massive three day -purification ceremony, amid a grand celebration that drew thousands of pilgrims, the historic site was restored to its glory, and reopened to public on 22 November, 2016.
Meaning of different parts of the Stupa
1. Mandala: Mansion of Boudha
2. Dome: Symbol of Universe or Vase of great treasure
3. Two Eyes: Symbol of method and wisdom
4. Harmika: Symbol of eight noble paths (Four square parts of stupa)
5. Nose like symbol: Symbol of Nirvana
6. Thirteen Steps: 13 steps of Bodhisattva’s ground for complete enlightenment
7. Lotus: Symbol of compassion and purity
8. Umbrella: Protector of three jewels; Boudha, Dharma, and Sangha
9. Pinnacle: Symbol of Mt. Sumeru (King of all mountains)
Pokhara is the second largest city of Nepal and tops the list of must visit places. With its bewitching beauty extended in forms of snow-capped peaks, tranquil lakes, greenery, adventure sports and trek trails, Pokhara is a place for anyone and everyone. With the magnificent Annapurna range forming the backdrop and the serenity of three major lakes – Phewa, Rupa and Begnas – Pokhara is the ultimate gateway for relaxation. While most famous treks begin here, Pokhara also offers adventure activities like paragliding, ultralight flight, and the world’s longest and fastest zip line.
Nepal is widely known for its vast trekking trails and spectacular views, however, there are many short trails as well that offer views equally stunning and splendid. Ghandruk, a beautiful Gurung settlement, takes you through rhododendron forests and rural areas, giving you an insight into the conventional lifestyle of the locals with glimpses of Machhapuchhre and Annapurna.
Pola & Mola (Tibetan for grandfather and grandmother) are an old Tibetan couple living in Nepal. Originally from Lhasa, Tibet, they migrated to Kathmandu in the late 1950’s to begin a new life in Nepal. A young 20 year old Pola had on his shoulders, the responsibilities of educating his younger siblings and taking care of his parents. Despite cultural and language differences, he set foot exploring the streets of Kathmandu.
Initially, he bought Nepalese spices, tobacco and candles; and exported them to Lhasa. He recalls those days when there were no roads and they had to send men on foot till the border carrying the supplies for days. “The Nepalese people are very hard working and with a Khukuri attached to their shirts, they carried goods on their backs,” he recalls. This went on till 1969, after which the highway was built and the Tibet – Nepal trade flourished. Since then, he traveled back and forth for 48 years between Nepal and Tibet, importing raw wool, musk, Tibetan thermos, campus shoes and later the famous Tibetan carpets from Lhasa to Nepal and likewise, exporting herbs, cotton, jute, ghee etc. to Lhasa.
While Pola sold Nepalese imported goods in the popular Barkhor Street in Lhasa, Mola stayed in a small retail shop they opened in the busy streets of Ason in Kathmandu selling all types of clothes, shoes, accessories, etc. “I made a lot of friends in Ason”, she says. “Those were the carefree days; chitchatting and drinking tea with fellow shopkeepers is how I improved my Nepali.”
After 57 years in Nepal, Pola & Mola share fond memories of Tibet and Nepal comparing similarities & differences between the two places they call home. “The same astounding landscape, mountains, hard-working people yet so distinct in culture and language.”
With 4 children and 6 grandchildren, they now live a happy retired life in Nepal. “Life has shown us so many phases, between being born and brought up in Tibet and retiring in Nepal. We love our life and are happy but what is important to us is that we do not forget our Tibetan culture and heritage, the place that defined our existence. We are proud of our traditional dress – Bakhu and our Tibetan language. Also, on this happy occasion, we would like to wish everyone a very happy Lhosar. Lhosar Tashi Delek!”
1. Bhutan is the only country that measures its progress by its “Gross National Happiness.” This tiny nation is arguably the happiest country on earth.
2. Bhutan’s people planted 108,000 trees to celebrate the birth of their new prince in 2016. Not to forget, plastic bags have been banned in Bhutan since 1999.
3. Bhutan is the only nation in the world where the sale of tobacco is banned. Those who bring their own tobacco products into Bhutan are subject to duties and customs at the Paro Airport.
4. Until the 1960’s, Bhutan had no roads, automobiles, telephone, postal system or electricity. Bhutanese had no access to TV or Internet until limited access was permitted in 1999.
5. The first foreign tourists were allowed into Bhutan in 1974.
1. The flag of Nepal is the only National flag that is not rectangular in shape and is over 2000 years old.
2. 8 of the world’s 10 highest peaks are in Nepal, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest at 8,848 m (29.029 ft).
3. Nepal has the world’s densest concentration of World Heritage Sites.
4. Nepal has over 80 ethnic groups and 123 languages.
5. “Better to die than be a coward” is the motto of the world-famous Nepalese Gurkha soldiers who are an integral part of the British Army since 1815.
1. Titled the “Roof of the World”, Tibet is literally the highest place on earth with an average elevation of 4,500 m (14,764 ft).
2. Tibetan people by tradition place prayer flags around their houses & properties for spiritual protection. These prayer flags are made up of 5 natural elements each a different color of blue, white, red, green, yellow each symbolizing Space, Air, Fire, Water and Earth.
3. Tibet is known as the world’s “Third Pole” as, after the North and South Poles, it holds the third largest quantity of glacially stored water.
4. Potala Palace, the chief residence of the Dalai Lama is exclusively constructed on “Marpori” that translates as “Red Mountain”. The 13-storied palace has no elevator with about 1,000 rooms to explore and houses 200,000 Buddhist images.
5. Namtso, ‘the heavenly lake’, is the highest saltwater lake in the world that leaves one spellbound by its glistening beauty, pure blue water, and spiritual element.
A good three hours of bumpy ride, about 75 km north from Kathmandu, driving over a hill after another through the meandering Trishuli River brought us to the hills of Nuwakot. Embellished with rich history and traditional royal architecture, Nuwakot was once the capital of the valley. It is here that King Prithivi Narayan Shah, the unifier and the first king of Nepal formulated his strategy to conquer Kathmandu.
For the four of us, this was our first time to Nuwakot. Stories of the first king of Nepal and his beautiful palace, the famous Saat Tale Durbar, a seven-storey fortress built in 1762 were little details we had grown up hearing about. When we finally made it there last weekend, we were saddened to see the catastrophe caused by the April 2015 earthquake. While the seven-storey fortress still remained put, entering it was prohibited because the structure looked fragile. Little village houses and temples around the area were in ruins; and though slowly, there were signs of restoration. Big pictures of pre, and post-earthquake that now adorned the area gave us an idea of what life would have been here before.
With a heavy heart, we drove to our overnight destination, The Famous Farm which was a stone’s throw away from the durbar. At first glance, The Famous Farm was simply an oasis of tranquility. Built in a 100-year-old mud house, this place is an amalgam of old and modern. The Famous Farm beautifully combines village life with modern facilities like a clean bathroom, comfortable bed, hot shower and a scrumptious cuisine. We spent the night warm and cozy in the open courtyard by the fire as we sipped wine and sang along to old country songs. Later we walked to our rooms through small wooden stairs and doors and hopped into our bed waiting for dawn.
We watched the sun rise over the hills as we sipped coffee from our wooden balcony. The ambiance was spectacular as we breathed clean fresh air that is difficult to find in Kathmandu. Quickly we realized that day light accentuated the beauty of The Famous Farm as blooming bright pink bougainvillea adorned the building. Breakfast in the garden was a delight, one could spend hours simply basking in the sun or enjoying a drink but we wanted to make the most of our short trip so we decided to go for a quick hike around the village.
We walked through patchy settlements and terraced farms as little children waved at us while others went about their daily chores. We passed old men and women basking in the sun, looking up to smile at us before getting back into conversations that eluded us. The view from our highest trek point was exceptional as we overlooked hills of dense forests and the meandering Trishuli River flowing smoothly below.
As we returned from the hike, we had a chilled jar of lemonade waiting for us at the hotel. A surprise treat after the hike! Quenching our thirst and thanking the staff for their wonderful service, it was time to say goodbye. As much as we wanted to stay, we left The Famous Farm with tons of stories to tell and a promise to visit again.
Later we stopped at the bazaar for a hearty Nepali meal and left Nuwakot with bellies full and lots of memories to share.
That was a weekend well spent!
Heat mustard oil or regular cooking oil in a saucepan and put dry chilies. Stir until the chilies turn dark. (Nicely fried dried red chilies bring out the flavor)
Add chopped onions and green chilies and fry them until they turn golden brown in color. Add some turmeric powder into it.
Now, put the chopped tomatoes and let it cook in medium heat. Add salt, red chili powder, and cumin powder to taste.
Add ginger garlic paste and cover it for about 15 minutes.
After the water dries, wait till the mix turns into a nice thick consistency. (Add water if you want to dilute it.)
Lastly, garnish with fresh coriander leaves. This is served cold.
Tihar or Deepawali is the festival of lights celebrated widely in Nepal. The five day long festival falls a fortnight after the grand festival of Dashain during Kartik, the seventh month of the Nepalese calendar. A joyous annual festival occurring in late autumn, Tihar brings happiness, prosperity and good wishes into the lives of people. Each day represents reverence to not just humans, but also to the sacred cows, dogs, crows and oxen that are honored in the Hindu culture. Being the festival of lights, butter lamps known as diyos are lit and the entire country illuminates to celebrate with immense joy and ecstasy.
First Day – Kag Tihar
The first day of Tihar is Kag Tihar where the Kag or crow is worshipped. Considered to be the messenger of death, people try to ward off grief and death in their families by offering food to crows.
Second Day – Kukur Tihar
The second day of Tihar is dedicated to the most loyal friend of mankind, Kukur or dog. Dogs are especially important to Nepal’s Hindu practitioners and are regarded as mount of God “Bhairab” as well as “Yama” (God of Death). They are said to guard the gates of afterlife and represent the concept of dharma, the path of righteousness.
On this day, dogs are worshipped as a gratitude for their loyalty and service. A garland of marigold flowers that are in full bloom during this time is draped around their neck and an auspicious red tika applied on the forehead that signifies their devotion and friendliness. They are offered delicious food and the day is marked to treasure the relationship between humans and dogs.
Third Day – Gai Tihar and Laxmi Puja
The third day is one of the major days of Tihar. The morning is Gai Tihar meaning cow worship. In Hinduism, the cow is regarded as Goddess Laxmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. She is considered holy and sacred and in ancient times, cow milk, dung, and even urine were utilized as a source of purifying oneself. The cow is fed plenty of grass and garlanded with the auspicious marigold flower this morning.
In the afternoon, houses and offices are cleaned and floors painted with Red Mud (Rato Mato) and cow dung (gobar). Rangoli, a pattern made of colored rice, colored sand and flower petals, is drawn at the main entryway of the house and traditional butter lamps (Diyo) are lit to welcome the gods and goddesses. Doors and windows are decorated with fresh garlands of sayapatri (marigold) and makhamali (chrysanthemums) flowers. In the evening at a scheduled auspicious time, Goddess Laxmi is worshipped and thanked for the well-being and prosperity of the family. Various sweetmeats are offered to the goddess and relished amongst family and friends. After the prayers, girls and boys go out to the neighborhood houses singing and dancing to the customary songs, Bhailo and Deusi for which they are bestowed with money, fruits and selroti, a Nepalese delicacy made of rice and sugar.
Firecrackers and sparklers light up the sky although the government has imposed a ban to avoid any mishaps and protect the environment.
Fourth Day – Goru Tihar and Mha (aatma or self) Puja
This day different types of prayers or Pujas are held depending on one’s cultural background. People who follow Vaishnavism perform the Gobardhan Puja (honoring Gobardhan Mountain) or Goru Puja (worship of the oxen). The ox helps farmers plough fields and draw the carts in the paddy fields of Nepal, a predominant agricultural country. They are fed and worshipped and Govardhan Puja is performed, where a paste of cow dung is applied outside houses as replicas of the Gobardhan Mountain.
At dusk the Newar community perform Mha Puja also known as self-puja. It is done to purify the body and soul for one’s prosperity and longevity. A Mandala or mandap, sand painting of a sacred diagram signifying good fortune and long life, decorated with marigold flowers, sweets, fruits and a special garland is set for each family member who sit cross-legged behind it. The elder female member then begins applying the tika on their foreheads and performs the rituals handing over shagun, auspicious food consisting of boiled eggs, fruits, sweets, fish, and the traditional rice wine. Later they indulge in a scrumptious feast and revel in the festive ambience.
This day also marks the new year of the Nepal Sambat, the Newari calendar.
Fifth Day: Bhai Tika
The final day of Tihar is dedicated to the siblings, particularly brothers. At an auspicious time scheduled a day earlier by an astrologer, the entire nation’s sisters apply tika of five colors on her brother’s forehead and pray to Yamraj, the god of death, to ensure his long life. She also ties a sacred cotton thread of Tantric value meant to protect them and offers him sweets and fruits. Similarly, the brothers give tika to sisters and offer her gifts and money along with an assurance to protect her forever. Those without sisters receive tika from cousins and relatives. The impact of this day is to strengthen the bond between brothers and sisters.
Tihar is the second biggest festival of Nepal after Dashain. The proximity of the two major festivals gets people in the merry-making mood the entire month beginning from Dashain and lasting until the end of Tihar.